The term, "species", comes from the same root as the word, "special". In the minds of early biologists such as Linnaeus (1707 - 1778), it conveyed meanings such as, fundamental, specially created, self-contained. Others have tried to broaden this meaning to accommodate Darwinism. However, it is apparent that if one species could grade into another, species would not be species and biology would collapse into disorder.
The mystery of heredity - the transmission from parents to offspring of inherited features - was first solved by a semi-amateur, Mendel (1822-1884). He solved the mystery by applying simple mathematics (demonstrated by his famous pea breeding experiments). This inevitably led to the conclusion that mathematical codes - information technology - are somehow involved in heredity. Mathematically coded information must be involved. Mendel assumed species to be special, and the principles of heredity demanded that species are, as Mendel assumed, special, reproductive, "islands unto themselves" - they reproduce only after their kind. The codes would become hazy and diluted if species could grade into each other.
Animal and Plant Cells
As the atom is the fundamental building block of matter, so the cell is the building block of every living thing. We all begin as one cell, and we grow through multiplication of this cell.
Essentially a cell is an interactive instruction code (DNA) surrounded by chemcial substances that put the instructions into effect.
Conceptualised, flattened fragment of DNA.
DNA is an acronym for De-Oxy Ribo Nucleic Acid -- an information programmable molecule found within living cells. Its sophistication as an information store and transmitter, governing the biologic organism of which it is part, staggers belief. Each species has its own specially coded DNA.
In simplest terms it stores information utilizing a code based on 4 (a conventional computer uses a code based on 2).
Excluding mankind, the essential difference between every living organism, from the simplest to the most complex, is nothing more and nothing less than the information programmed into it. The information governs the form the organism will take as it grows -- whether it grows to be a mite or an elephant. Man's physical body is in a sense also a product of information. For instance, it seems likely that humans could function with the internal organs of other animals -- if only we could re-programme our automatic immune systems to "read" the foreign flesh as "human". In other words, by signalling the correct intelligence, one species could theoretically be changed to another -- but not immediately change in outward appearance -- the visible change appearing in its offspring!
Geologic Record of Earth, compared to the history of Venus
The earth seems to have 'come alive' in some fundamental way, a mere 550 million years ago.
The history of Venus, if anything, is the reverse. Taylor S.R., 1998, p. 132-3, "The age of the surface of Venus can be worked out from the number of craters that have formed on it over time. We know the rate of impacts from our study of the craters on the dated surfaces on the Moon. Based on this, the surface of Venus appears to be relatively young. This is a very strange finding. On Earth we are missing only the first ten percent of our history in the rock record, but on Venus, there is no record of what happened in the first 85 per cent of its history. There are no old surfaces covered with craters, such as we see on Mars, Mercury or the Moon. The present surface of Venus is somewhere between three and five hundred million years old. What is curious is that not much seems to have happened there since. The 950 impact craters that were produced on Venus over that period of time are mostly uneroded. Five hundred million years ago, the Cambrian Period on the Earth was marked by the appearance of the first hard-shelled animals. Quite a lot has happened here since then. Venus has had a very different history. A few hundred million years ago, it covered its surface with a great splurge of lava. Apparently exhausted by this great outpouring, geologic activity on Venus hasn't managed to produce more than a trickle of lava since then."
The interface between the oldest, 'basement' rocks (the Pre-Cambrian) and those strata overlying these older rocks - the lowermost of these being the Cambrian. This is the only feature of the geologic column easily recognizable world-wide as a product of a single event. Radiometric dating suggests 540-550 million years past as the time of this pivotal change. Life exploded dramatically at this point in time, as did the rate at which continents moved and rock accumulated. It is the sudden change in the nature of rock strata and in their fossil content that make this a universally recognizable feature of the earth. An unconformity in the sense of a discrepancy between the angle of tilt of the strata does not always occur.
Taylor S.R., 1998 p. 166, "The most likely model to account for the strange composition of tiny Mercury is that much of the rocky mantle was lost during a massive collision. Current estimates are that the impacting body was about one fifth of the mass of Mercury, hitting the planet head-on at 20 kilometers per second. In this scenario, the initial mass of Mercury would be about twice its present value. The rocky material would be smashed into pieces less than a centimeter in size, and mostly swept away to finish up in the Sun, Venus or the Earth. We may have some bits that were originally in Mercury. The tough metal core hung together and wrapped itself, like a cosmic beggar, in a thin cloak of rock. This model also provides for the strange orbit of Mercury. A bigger collision might have left us with only the iron core and so an iron planet at which to wonder."
Strange though it may seem, our moon is receding from us at a measured rate of 3-4 centimeters per annum. There is nothing personal in this -- it happens to all bodies in like mechanical relationship to the earth-moon.
The moon draws tides up towards itself. At the same time, the fast-spinning earth keeps dragging the waters around with itself. Each time a tidal bulge passes under the moon, a fraction of the earth's spin momentum is imparted to the moon via the gravitational link between the tidal bulge and the body causing the bulge.
So the moon is gaining momentum at the expense of the earth's spin. Theoretically this process continues until the two bodies synchronize -- earth's spin slows to keep exact time with the moon. By then, our satellite would be substantially farther removed from us.
The moon does not gain more speed through this process of momentum transfer. The impetus is imparted to our satellite as angular momentum. It may focus our thoughts to think of a tension-wrench. By increasing the length of the handle, the turning power of the wrench is increased. Angular momentum equals mass multiplied by velocity multiplied by distance. By increasing distance, momentum is increased.
Therefore, over time, our tides may have been diminishing. The lunar month would concurrently have been getting longer, and likewise our day, as the moon stepped back from a slowing earth.
Can this be verified from the geologic record?
Mathematical analyses of rhythmically layered rocks of probable tidal origin give encouraging results. These so-called rhythmites can theoretically yield the number of complete lunar monthly cycles per annum -- the year having presumably been constant back in time -- and from this, a rough estimate of the loss of earth momentum to the moon can be made. Loss of earth momentum can be employed in estimating change in duration of the day. The number of daily growth ridges per monthly - or per annual - growth band in shelled fossil organisms can be employed in an attempt to corroborate the rhythmite findings. These findings, whilst speculative, have been intriguing.
There are grounds for suspecting that 5-600 million years ago the earth day was of the order of 21 hours, and tides were markedly stronger. The moon then may well have been in closer orbit of a faster-spinning earth, with commensurately more days and more lunar months per year. Researchers have not been noticeably forward in attempting to answer the intriguing question of the exact number of days in a month, 500 million years ago.
Rythmically layered rock and shelly fossils have their limitations. Nevertheless, organisms such as corals are exceptionally sensitive in their growth rates to factors such as light and tides. Painstaking analyses of well-preserved coral specimens have led some researchers to suspect an extra day or two in the then lunar month. Is it possible that the lengthening of the day and the month might not have kept exact pace with each other? Whatever the finer details, a changing day or a changing month are thought-provoking. Did those ancient corals, so sensitive to tides and, thereby, the moon, spawn on the same day of the month as their modern counterparts?
Assuming the duration of the day and the lunar month has varied, did reproductive rhythms automatically adjust over time, designed to follow the timetable of the heavens? One conclusion appears reasonably safe. Tidally-induced banding -- if that is indeed what it is -- does not discount moon-capture in the vicinity of 5-600 million years ago. If we remove the moon at that time, do we explain the slower overall recession rates calculated from the pre-600 m. yr. rhythmites? The sun itself causes tides. Is it possible that the sun, perhaps in conjunction with an earth-orbiting ice body, or even a disc of orbiting ice bodies, could account for the older beds?
Whilst the evidence of rhythmic banding remains equivocal, another recent development appears unequivocal. Chemical analyses of some of the most ancient mineral grains point to free water on the early earth. See, for example, Ronald Kotulak's 'Scientists' Discovery Shifts Sands of Time', in The Chicago Tribune, 11th January, 2001. Free water on the early earth is scarcely news to a biblically literate person. Ominously for other moon origin theories, it seems to rule out a dry, heated, splitting, or impacted early earth. Capture is the only existing mainstream model without debilitating handicaps.
Quantum theory has to do with the basis of matter. Broadly it deals with the behaviour of things that are smaller than the atom. It is necessary to modern communications such as microwave, optic fibre and wireless computers. The German scientist Max Planck, a pioneer of this field of science, said "if anybody says he can think about quantum problems without getting giddy, that only shows he has not understood the first thing about them."
When a ball is hit by a bat, it moves in a predictable path governed by conventional or Newtonian mechanics. Because objects smaller than an atom are energy (an energy "wave") equally with being objects, they do not behave as do conventional, larger objects. They are subject to various sophisticated mathematical possibilities. Theoretically, it might be possible to capitalize on this to build a super, or "quantum", computer!
Because electrons (quanta of energy) are difficult to visualise physically, scientists have devised ways of depicting them mathematically. Max Born created a system based on 'quantum numbers' in 1928. Quantum numbers have four parts:
(© 1995 Accelerated Christian Education, INC., reprinted by permission)
Quantum numbers form the bases of complicated mathematical models scientists and engineers use when interpreting the quantum world. It may assist our understanding to think in terms of christian theology - a single Entity that is equal Multiples: equal Multiples that are a single Entity: concurrent simultaneous action and understanding, equally, everywhere (God). The basis of all matter is a vibrant communication (Word). A change in energy level of electrons in atoms is associated with the emission or absorption of a quantum of # information energy matter #, such as a photon of light. The center of gravity of a # information energy matter # quantum cannot be located using conventional measuring devices. Some quanta, such as light photons, can act as multiples concurrently with being single entities. Photonics, rather than electronics, is the most efficient information carrying medium in nature. Laser light operated in specialised magnetic fields theoretically can take the place of chemical agents. Quantum information technology is multiple databased, as distinct from conventional information technology, which has a database of two (stop, go). Theoretically a quantum computer could perform parallel information processing simultaneously, rendering all existing man-made information technology irrelevant by comparison. Such an information technology, operating in the biosphere, would go close to appearing to give nature itself magical powers of creation. But nature has no supernatural powers: physics, in the form of quantum information technology, was doing the information processing. Giddy?
To what type of information system does DNA belong? Is it part of a quantum information system?
Buchanan M., 15 April 2000, New Scientist, p. 20-24, "Biologists have known for half a century. . . the four-letter code of DNA. . . a quantum computer can search a database far faster than any classical device. . . a quantum computer can distinguish between four possibilities. . . . with one attempt."
Scientists are now suggesting that DNA functions in the quantum realm. Recent research suggests that DNA and other complex organic molecules can be programmed/re-programmed using quantum information technology.
Kaku, M., 15 April 2008, New Scientist, pp. 36-37, "The idea of teleportation was once considered impossible. Yet today physicists regularly teleport single photons over distances of 600 metres, and can also teleport whole caesium and beryllium atoms. More precisely, they can teleport the quantum information contained within a photon or atom onto a distant photon or atom. Within a decade, the first molecule may be teleported in this way, and within a few decades researchers could teleport more complex organic molecules and perhaps even the first virus or strand of DNA.
To achieve this, physicists exploit an exotic property called quantum entanglement. If two particles are brought together in such a way that their quantum wave functions vibrate in unison, then they form a bond like an invisible umbilical cord that connects them even if they are separated by vast distances. If you later disturb one particle, then the information you impart onto it is transmitted instantaneously to its partner -- so the entangled partner forms a ready-and-waiting template for whatever information is to be teleported."
Are there any large scale quantum effects in nature that might be candidates for interaction with DNA and other programmable molecules inside living organisms?
Can pursuit of this question lead us towards the mechanism of species transformations?
A quantum process that produces results in the larger, conventional world. The electromagnetic configuration within certain substances is altered by an outside factor such as extremely low temperature, expelling magnetic force lines from the object and allowing electrons to move with little or no impedence. Depending on the nature of the superconductor there can be as little as zero electrical resisistance. The point to be gained is that there are mechanisms in nature by which conventional factors such as temperature, pressure, planetary composition etc., could be employed to impart information into the quantum realm - and the quantum realm is the realm of some of the hidden communications of nature, with the possibility of DNA reprogramming, etc.
A phenomenon similar in some ways to superconductivity. It has been observed at everyday temperatures in microscopic strands of organic compounds. This technology is in its complete infancy.
Through this quantum process, the interior of organisms can be 'viewed'. Radiowaves have an effect upon subatomic particles - in this case the proton - and when the radiowaves are terminated, the atoms of which the protons are a part return to normal. This is done in a magnetic field which is 'monitored' by information gathering computers. The interaction between the atoms and the magnetic field, after stimulation by radiowaves is terminated, gives a picture of the interior of living organisms. A combination of radio, magnetism and information technology extracts low-level information from living cells.
The reverse will apply. A combination of magnetism and radio, with intelligent application of information, will be a medium for imparting information to living cells. Aspects of a magnetic resonance imaging machine are built into the solar system. Could a phenomenon such as ultraconductivity within the molecular structures of living cells play a part in the information transfer process?
The answer to this question must meet the following requirements:
What clues have we been given?
Although our understanding of matter, and of the information devices in living organisms, is limited, we do know that a very sophisticated information capability exists in every cell. The following articles explore this capability:
The purpose and function of some parts of the DNA molecule remain unknown (e.g. surprise outcomes of the human genome project). The mechanism of the auto-immune system is likewise dimly perceived. It is becoming less dimly perceived, and no awards are being handed out for deducing that it involves information operated "switches". When we come to the transfer of information between a cell and its external environment, RNA, which is a major player in information transmission, is no better understood than DNA and the immune system. We do know that the two-way passage of information between the various components of an organism and its information command involves the movement of molecules whose properties and physical shape are central to the information transfer process.
PICTURE HIGHLIGHTING CONCEPTS OF DNA REPLICATION
Let us now visualise the living cell as a sophisticated information device
in some ways analogous to a computer. Assume that there is a central control
in this "computer", which in effect designates the "species"
or "model" of the "computer". Assume that this "computer"
has been designed to transfer into a new "model" when the environment
surrounding the "computer" requires it to do so. Assume there
are regular power signals originating outside the "computer",
which if read intelligently by the "computer" will enable its
transformation into a new model. As a species modifies in response to
environmental conditions, the parts of its DNA which are coded with information
relevant to those environmental conditions receive information feedback.
A species, as we know, does change in response to its living conditions.
Its DNA must therefore also change, not fundamentally, but superficially.
Areas within the DNA coded with information relevant to the living conditions
receive information in the form of various attendant molecules and other
modifications. These superficial modifications to the DNA form a type
of "transformation agents". Assume DNA has been designed so
that, when all the transformation agents are in place, a suitable power
signal from outside the "computer" will result in transformation.
A new "model" or "species" arises. It is the product
Because of our very incomplete understanding of matter, electricity and
chemistry, we cannot at this stage specify the exact events involved in
remodelling DNA. When we hear of technicians using the molecules that
exist within living cells as superior diodes, of the computer- like features
of DNA, of the possibility of miniscule biomagnets being essential to
the functioning of some organisms -- suspicions are aroused. It should
be possible to change chemical bonds and re-locate atoms within living
organisms utilizing some sort of light/radio/electromagnetic trigger,
provided the chemical setting is suitable and the molecule has been designed
for it. Intuitively it is possible to design a computer so that its central
information command will reprogram in response to information feedback
from the environment around it, synchronised with a sequence of power
signals from without.
ILLUSTRATION OF TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
(Many of these concepts are scriptural, and have a deeper application and a concurrence with human and religious experience. The depth of meaning of God's words will never be plumbed by mortal man).
This proposed mechanism is conceptual and simplistic. It does not account for everything the geologic and biologic record and the Bible tell us about the origin and revelation of the species. It raises as many questions as it answers. To investigate some of these questions click here.
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